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In Industrial Laser Marking four marking methods are commonly used

  • Engraving
  • Annealing
  • Ablation
  • Foaming

BASIC MARKING METHODS :  
Engraving , Deep Engraving:
Deep marking and engraving are technologies based on the same procedural principle, laser-induced ablation through melting displacement and/or evaporation. Deep marking is a method used to flexibly create a durable, direct product marking that is forgery-proof and resistant to wear and corrosion.
By laser engraving, 2 ½ dimensional structures can be formed in injection- or forming molds, which are thus transfered to the mass production parks
engrave
Anneling:
Laser annealing creates an indelible mark induced by heat and oxygen without noticeable material ablation. Laser annealing is used with all metals which show a color change when exposed to heat and oxygen, especially stainless steel. As a burr-free process, annealing offers significant advantages when marking already finished surfaces. Process speed is lower compared to laser engraving because annealing relies solely on thermal effects.
Anneling
Ablation:
Originally developed for day and night marking, this laser marking method removes opaque lacquer coats from transparent parts. The same process is used for laser marking anodized aluminum and labels made of special multiple layer foils. After marking, the labels are cut out without damaging the carrier foil (kiss-cutting).
Ablation
Foaming:
Laser marking of polymers relies on carbonization or foaming processes caused by laser beam absorption. Carbonization (a thermochemical process) produces dark marks. Foaming, a partial degradation creating gas-bubbles within the material, scatters the light and produces light marks. Additives can help improving absorption properties